Radio Boulevard
Western Historic Radio Museum

Rebuilding the BC-348 Family of Receivers
(includes Grid-Cap, Single End & BC-224)

History of the BC-348 & BC-224 -

How to Retrofit the Dynamotor - DM-24 & DM-28 -

Build a Better AC Power Supply  -

-  Repainting the BC-348 RECEIVER  -

by: Henry Rogers WA7YBS/WHRM

photo above: The BC-348-R as shown in the USAF Air University "Radio Mechanics" Course 3012 Vol.1.

Let's face it! Almost every, single BC-348 has fallen victim to the "cut and hack" mania that afflicted many hams back in the fifties and sixties. If you're lucky, the BC-348 you happen to find might only have an AC power supply installed. However, even this simple modification required a lot of changes to the BC-348 circuit and today, if you want to return the BC-348 back to its original configuration, you can't just drop in the DM-28 dynamotor and expect the receiver to function. This article will detail not only what is required to retrofit the DM-28 into a modified BC-348 but also details many other aspects to consider in the restoration of these great receivers. Part One of this article is specifically for the BC-348-Q. The "Q" version was the most popular of the BC-348 series with probably well over 40,000 receivers having been built by Wells-Gardner. Of note is that the "Q" version is virtually identical to the "N" and the "J" versions. These three versions use Single-Ended tubes and feature a circuit that is very easy to work on. Part Two of this article deals specifically with the BC-348-C version that uses the "Grid Cap" tubes. The BC-348-C is very similar to all of the "Grid Cap" tube versions. The earlier versions of the BC-348 receiver are much more difficult to work on. Part Three of this article covers the BC-224 receiver with its slightly different requirements. Two additional sections address the BC-348 owner that wants to keep his AC power supply operation but wants the best performance from his BC-348 and how to do a successful wrinkle finish re-paint job.  

A Brief History of the BC-348 Series Radio Receivers

Before the BC-348 came about there was an earlier version of this famous Aircraft Receiver. It was the BC-224 and it was designed by RCA around 1935. It was a 12 volt DC operated receiver that provided B+ via an onboard dynamotor. The first BC-224 receivers had the tuning dial at the far left of the front panel giving the receiver a dramatically different appearance. When the BC-224 was first produced most aircraft systems ran on 12-14vdc. However, by the late-thirties, many aircraft systems were beginning to use 24-28vdc which required RCA to develop another receiver to run on 28vdc which was designated as the BC-348. Simultaneous with the release of the BC-348, RCA redesigned the BC-224 to have the same external appearance as the new BC-348. All versions of these early receivers were built by RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., a subsidiary of RCA that built most of their commercial and military contracts. Both versions, the BC-224 and the BC-348, were built up to 1942, when contacts for the BC-224 versions stop. All BC-224 receivers were built by RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc. with the exception of one contact. The BC-348 contacts continued through WWII with the greatest quantities built during the 1943-44 time period.

The BC-348 operates on 24-28vdc with the high voltage (~+220vdc) provided by an internal dynamotor. Over 100,000 BC-348 receivers were built during WWII by many different contractors building many different versions within that time period. The "Early" circuit used eight tubes with the heaters originally wired in series-parallel for 24vdc operation (two parallel strings of four 6 volt tube heaters in series would operate on 24vdc.) The "early" circuit provided two RF amplifiers, a Mixer, a Local Oscillator, an IF amplifier stage, a combination 2nd IF amp and BFO, a combination 3rd IF amp and Detector/AVC followed by a type 41 audio output stage (this was changed to a 6K6 in some later versions.) Early versions also will have a 991 neon lamp acting as a regulator on the local oscillator and will provide an antenna trim control. A selectable crystal filter was also included in the circuit. The dual dial lamps were adjustable for brightness and were wired in series through a potentiometer and fixed resistor. Frequency coverage was from 200-500kc (not on the B or C version) and 1.5-18mc. The audio output impedance was internally selectable at "low Z" which was around 300 Z ohms or "high Z" which was around 4000 Z ohms. Some BC-348s will have a decal on the front panel indicating if the "low Z" was optioned.

During the middle of WWII, the BC-348-J, N and Q "Later Version" of the receiver was introduced. This new version had to be interchangeable with the earlier BC-348 so physically both versions appear almost identical. Inside, however, several changes were made to reduce the cost of building the BC-348 but still maintaining its high level of performance. The "later" version reduced production costs by simplifying the construction and component mounting which additionally made depot repairs of these "later" receivers much easier. The "later" circuit used two RF amplifiers, a converter stage, three IF amplifiers, a duplex diode/triode provided Detector, AVC and BFO functions and a 6K6 provided the audio output.

When the receiver was installed on its FT-154 shock mount and installed in the aircraft, an eight pin Jones plug mated with a receptacle and cable that exited from the rear of the mount containing the 28vdc input, the remote stand-by relay function and an audio output line. The BC-348 was generally interconnected with the transmitter to control boxes allowing the transmitter's control relay to provide antenna switching, receiver stand-by and providing side tone monitoring which allowed for full "break-in" keying.

Since there are so many variations, military radio collectors have generally divided the BC-348 into two groups, "early" types (B, C, E, H, K, L, O, P & R) referred to as the "Grid Cap Tubes" version and the "later" versions (J, N & Q) referred to as the "Single-Ended Tubes" version. Many different contractors built BC-348s but Wells-Gardner Co. probably built the greatest quantity of receivers and is the most commonly seen contractor-manufacturer. Estimated production of the entire BC-348 line exceeds 100,000 receivers making it one of the most commonly found WWII aircraft receivers today.

The BC-348 became available as surplus almost immediately after WWII ended. The typical price was around $50 for a receiver in good condition. The dynamotor was still installed but many surplus dealers offered to replace the dynamotor with an AC power supply for around $10. The shock mount was extra at around $3. After a few years, the surplus dealers would advertise how many BC-348s they were getting in and for the buyer to "act fast" as supplies were limited. A few surplus outlets did have "new" BC-348s still in the crate for about $75 though this wasn't all that common, most receivers sold were used but in good condition. Since most surplus dealers would add an AC power supply to the BC-348 and every surplus conversion book advocated this modification (and many others) and nearly every ham-owner also was capable of converting the receiver to anything that was considered necessary for successful operation, today it is almost impossible to find a BC-348 that hasn't been modified. Typically, the dynamotor will have been removed and an AC power supply added. The typical surplus dealer modification usually added a separate AC power switch somewhere on the front panel which accounts for how common this unnecessary and destructive addition is. Most thoughtful AC power supply additions use the original AVC-MVC switch power-on configuration. The actual AC power supply conversion was fairly simple and the operation of the receiver usually wasn't compromised (other than adding some hum to the audio output if the power supply wasn't well-filtered - and most power supplies weren't well-filtered.)

Apparently, Hallicrafters produced an AC-operated power supply that could be added to the BC-348 by the military. It was designated as EP-298. Very few ever show up so the production quantity must have been very small. The only example I've seen photos of was of a BC-348 used by the Navy. It's likely that the AC-operated BC-348 requirement was post-WWII and was probably for surveillance or some other ground-based application. The Hallicrafters' EP-298 would have required some conversion rework to the BC-348 and would probably have been performed by depot echelon level technicians.

Many other dubious BC-348 modifications were published in various surplus conversion books of the day and their incorporation into the receiver actually did compromise the original BC-348's great performance. S-meters and an audio output amplifier stage were the most popular mods. Since the BC-348 was easy to work on, many modifications were tried whether they were practical or not. Additionally, some hams would drill the case with lots of .25" holes thinking the receiver needed extra cooling. Originally, the BC-348 operated at altitudes up to 25,000 feet and higher where the temperature inside many types of aircraft was below zero - cooling the receiver was not a problem. But even on the ground in other applications, the BC-348 didn't run hot and adding ventilation holes only ruined the cabinet. The upshot is that the BC-348 is one receiver that is almost never found unmodified and in original condition.

Today, with the increasing popularity of hams running completely military radio stations, the BC-348 is often being used as the station receiver. Sometimes this is because the original military configuration requires its use, other times because the operator knows that it's such a great performing receiver - a receiver that "does so much, so well, with so little." Fabulous military looks, excellent sensitivity and good selectivity (when the IF is properly aligned and you actually use the Crystal Filter) have made the BC-348 a favorite among the military radio enthusiasts, knowledgeable hams and collectors of WWII airborne radio equipment.

Part One - BC-348-Q, N & J - The Single-Ended Tubes Versions

Finding a Good Candidate for Restoration

What to Look For - After you've looked at a lot of BC-348 receivers, it becomes pretty easy to eliminate the "victims" from the "survivors." "Victims" will have extra controls, perhaps a "hacked in" S-meter, generally sloppy workmanship and sometimes lots of extra holes drilled in the cabinet. Of course, I'm exaggerating a little bit, but the ideal "survivor" BC-348 will have all the original controls and no extra ones. Everything will appear correct on the exterior. Pull the receiver out of the case and check the chassis for obviously missing components - it is common to find the combination audio output transformer-filter choke missing. It's also possible that an extra stage of audio amplification might have been added. What you want to see is all of the original components present with the exception of an AC power supply that just fits into the area where the dynamotor originally was and is mounted to the chassis using the original dynamotor threaded bosses. This is about as close as you can normally come to finding a "perfect" BC-348 - at a reasonable price, anyway.

The photo to the right shows a typical "looks good" candidate. No extra controls, no extra holes. Everything looks pretty good on the exterior with the possible exception of the RCA phone jack for the Antenna input. The photos below show what surprises are lurking inside this particular BC-348.

photo right: BC-348-Q sn 20966 looks like a good restoration candidate.

Once the receiver is pulled out of the case it becomes apparent that BC-348-Q sn 20966 was modified by someone lacking the technical ability and experience to do a competent job. Note that the top of the chassis looks complete and original except for the AC power supply that was built onto the old dynamotor chassis but underneath extensive modifications have removed many of the original parts. Of note, the complete Jones-type plug assembly is missing along with C-70A/B*, the dual filter capacitor. Fortunately, the modifier utilized the existing wiring harness and terminal connections to the AC PS. This particular BC-348 is certainly a very good candidate for complete restoration.** Actually, it's in much better condition than most BC-348 receivers you find. But, as with most examples that turn up today, I'll be collecting parts for this restoration for awhile. In fact, the plastic bag tied to the front handle contains some of the replacement parts I've already located.

When you find a BC-348 restoration candidate, you'll want to know "up front" how much work and how many parts you are going to have to find in order to complete the restoration since this is going to affect the final selling price. It is imperative that the prospective BC-348 chassis be inspected thoroughly. If the receiver is being purchased online, be sure to insist on complete photos of the top and bottom of the chassis so you are aware of any missing parts or other problems ahead of purchasing the receiver.

* I'm just adding a letter prefix to the original numerical designation to help in recognizing the type of component.

** Take a look at the "Expected Performance" section and "Rebuilding a Homebrew AC Power Supply for Good Filtering" to see how the restoration of SN 20966 turned out. This BC-348-Q has been restored to original condition with the exception of a well-filter AC Power Supply. When (or if) a DM-28 dynamotor becomes available, SN 20966 can now easily be converted to fully original DC operation.

What to Look For in Your Preliminary Detailed Inspection - What you should find upon closer inspection of the modified circuit is that the original series-parallel wiring of the tube heaters has been changed to all of the tube heaters connected in parallel. This allowed the tube heater string to operate on 6.3vac rather than the original +24vdc. This was the most common AC power supply configuration. You will find that three resistors have probably been removed R-82, R-84 and R-85. These resistors limit the surge current on start-up when operating the (cold) heater string on +24 to +28vdc. You should also find that the two dial lamps will have been wired in parallel for 6.3vac operation. Additionally, with the dial lamps there is a series resistor (R-81) and a potentiometer control (R-111) - "DIAL LIGHTS" - that sometimes have been removed and a switch substituted for potentiometer and resistor. It's common to find C-70A/B, the dual filter capacitor, missing. It's a large square metal box mounted under the chassis.

How little damage is found in how the AC power supply has been fitted into the receiver will depend upon the technical abilities and experience of the original modifier. Most of the time the wiring harness isn't too badly damaged and it will only require a little dressing up, re-routing back to original and re-installation of the spade lugs in order to have the proper connections to the dynamotor terminals. Sometimes you may have to re-install some wiring in order to have the harness wires at the proper place for connection to the dynamotor terminals.

photo right: The underneath of SN 11227 before the DM-28 retrofit. This BC-348-Q AC PS mod had done minimal damage.

The normally found AC power supply modification has some way provided for the AC power cord to exit the receiver. This usually involves removal of the 8 pin Jones-type male plug SO-143 that was how the 24vdc was originally routed into the receiver along with remote stand-by and audio outputs. If SO-143 is missing an original will have to be found. Additionally, the remote stand-by and audio output functions will normally be disconnected. You will usually find the remote stand-by wired to be permanently in "receive."

Originally, the BC-348 was powered up with the AVC-OFF-MVC switch. Normally this is also used by modifiers as the AC power switch. Hopefully, a non-original ON-OFF toggle switch wasn't installed into the front panel. Why this was done on so many BC-348 receivers is a mystery. I think many modifiers thought the rotary switch wouldn't handle switching the AC. I've only encountered one BC-348 that had the rotary switch damaged and that was probably because of a wiring problem in the modification. Normally, the rotary switch handles the AC current fine. When everything is returned to original, the 24vdc will be applied by using the AVC-OFF-MVC switch.

Fortunately, most modifiers seem to mount the AC power supply chassis to the original dynamotor threaded bosses. This does no damage to the chassis. Occasionally, an ambitious modifier will "cut and hack" a power supply into the chassis - both top and bottom - but this is rare.

This should be all of the modifications that will be found in a BC-348 J, N or Q series that has only the AC power supply installation.

Locating Missing Parts

Parts Sets - Since the BC-348 is a very common receiver with thousands available it becomes practical and even desirable to purchase at least one "parts set." Sometimes one receiver has to be purchased for great external cosmetics and another because the chassis is perfect. It is very common to have to use at least two and often three different BC-348 receivers to build-up one complete, operational and original receiver. It is often much faster to purchase a "parts set" rather than to spend an eternity looking for a specific part that never turns up separated from a receiver. Unfortunately, even the BC-348 receivers that are in a condition that relegates them to "parts set" status, are nowadays fairly expensive. However, the time that is saved must be part of the equation in figuring how much to spend on a restoration.

Advertising - Sometimes this works but usually it is time consuming with very little success. I've had moderate success with QTH.swap but other advertising avenues seem to not be worth the time involved.

E-Bay - E-Bay works quite well for locating parts. Be prepared to pay absolutely the highest price for any part that happens to turn up for auction. In comparison to time involved in finding parts versus paying e-Bay prices, it's probably worth the higher prices since the items can be located and purchased fairly fast. Who wants their restoration to drag on and on?

Commonly Missing Parts

The following resistors will more than likely be missing:

 Part Number 82 - Resistor - 190 ohms 2W CC - parallel with RF Amplifier tubes heater string and the Converter tube heater
 Part Number 84 - Resistor - 7 ohms 1W CC - series with IF Amplifier tubes and AVC/DET/BFO tube heater string 
 Part Number 85 - Resistor - 5 ohms 1W CC - series with RF Amps, Converter and Audio Output heater string 
 Part Number 81
- Resistor - 60 ohms 2W WW - series from DIAL LIGHTS potentiometer to chassis

 Part Number 111 - 200 ohm wire wound potentiometer - usually this is still in place but sometimes a toggle switch is substituted for the potentiometer by modifiers because the potentiometer resistance is too high to provide much change in the dial light brightness (other than mostly OFF and a very minimal adjustment to FULL ON after the lamps are wired in parallel for 6.3vac operation.)

The following parts are often missing from modified BC-348 receivers...

Jones-type male plug, 8 pin, SO-143 - This assembly is made up of several parts that include the contact pins, the bakelite insulators, the two-piece aluminum housing, a bakelite block centering screw and four mounting screws and lock washers. Some parts lists identify this connector as SO-103. The original connections to the plug were +24vdc, -24vdc, AF output (worked against chassis) and Remote Standby. The -24vdc was connected directly to chassis adjacent to SO-143. In the original configuration, the FT-154 shock mount was wired into the aircraft system via P-103 which was mounted to FT-154 and mated with SO-143. When the BC-348 was installed onto the shock mount, then SO-143 engaged P-103 and the receiver was then connected into the aircraft power and control system.

IMPORTANT NOTE: When doing any work on the SO-143 connector where disassembly is required, be sure to carefully examine how it is assembled. You must make notes for correct reassembly! This connector can be assembled several different ways, with different pin lengths, different heights and none of them will fit into the PL-103 receptacle on the shock mount. Only one way of assembly is correct. So, be sure to carefully observe how the unit comes apart, so it goes back together the right way. Be sure to test your  BC-348 mounted SO-143 connector for proper fit into the FT-154 mounted PL-103 receptacle before initial disassembly.

Jones-type Connector SO-143

Dual Filter Capacitor, Part Number 70 (C-70A/B) - This is a dual filter capacitor with a 6uf capacitor on the B+ line and a 1uf capacitor as a cathode bypass for the 1st AF amplifier tube. This is a large square metal can that is mounted under the chassis and somewhat under the dynamotor bottom cover. Probably because of the proximity to the modification AC power supply, this capacitor is many times removed. Modifiers probably felt that the filtering in their AC power supply was sufficient and just added a replacement capacitor for the cathode bypass unit. It is original to have this unit installed, so if it's missing, an original will have to be found.

Be sure to test the replacement C-70A/B. These were high quality units that rarely are bad. Remember, these are oil-filled paper dielectric capacitors,...not electrolytic capacitors. If you are uncomfortable using 60 year old components, then you can rebuild C-70A/B by installing new capacitors inside the can. The bottom can be removed by cutting along the bottom seam. Then the capacitors can be removed, new components installed and the bottom re-attached. I usually just test and install an original unit. Oil-filled paper capacitors usually work fine.

Most of the capacitors installed in the BC-348 are high quality metal cased units that rarely fail. I usually only replace defective ones (rare) and then I try to utilize tested-good original components from a parts set. If you feel like all of the capacitors need to be replaced with new components, then you can replace with SBE orange drops if the under chassis appearance is not a concern or the originals can be rebuilt (restuffed) although this is a difficult process.

C-70A/B - Dual Filter Capacitor

Audio Output Transformer & Filter Choke,  Part Number 115A/B (T-115A/B
- This is the combination audio output transformer and filter choke. It is unique to the BC-348 series. If it is missing an original will have to be found. The audio output transformer on the J, N and Q versions will have two terminals to select either 300 ohms Z (low Z) or 4000 ohms Z (high Z) for the audio output impedance. The two top terminals shown in the photo to the right are marked LO (on left) and HI. Moving the wire from one terminal to the other accomplishes the change in output Z. Some receivers will have a decal on the front panel the shows that "LOW Z" has been wired for the output Z. What Z you select depends on what you intend to operate as your audio reproducer. The LS-3 is popular but its original Z is 8000 ohms. The LS-3 was never originally used with the BC-348. Hi-Z headsets will require the 4000 ohms Hi-Z and the 300 ohms Lo-Z works fine into a 600 ohm Z load - lo-Z 'phones or 600 ohm matching transformer.

Why some modifications removed T-115A/B and then added an extra stage of audio amplification is probably due to the belief that insufficient audio was present for loud speaker operation. This is a myth. The J, N and Q versions produce ample volume to drive a properly matched loud speaker. You can run an original 8K ohm Z LS-3 with the Hi-Z tap selected and the volume will be very loud. If you have modified an LS-3 to have a 600 ohm Z input, it will have plenty of volume using the Lo-Z tap. One has to remember, the original intent was to use earphones, but the LS-3 speaker does work fine with the BC-348 using the original T-115A/B. It's possible that some of the old modifications sought to match the receiver to 8 or 4 ohm Z loud speakers and that is why they went on to add an extra AF output stage with a standard AF output transformer. Totally unnecessary, of course, but that was the "modification craze" - do whatever you can to "undo" what the real radio engineers had designed.

T-115A/B - Audio Xmfr & Filter Choke

The Elusive FT-154 Shock Mount - The FT-154 shock mount is almost never found with a BC-348 receiver. The shock mounts were probably left on the aircraft when the receivers were pulled which accounts for why the FT-154 is almost always found separated from the receiver. Although you can certainly operate the BC-348 without the shock mount, the FT-154 does provide a proper way to support the receiver - on cushioned mounts - and safe way to apply power to the receiver - via the rear connector (if you also have PL-103.) Also, the FT-154 does somewhat change the total overall appearance of the BC-348 in a positive way.

I have encountered two different BC-348 receiver cases that have had the bottom plate that has the pointed engagement pins removed. This was done by drilling out the pop-rivets and removing the entire bottom plate. This leaves the case with out anything between its bottom and the table it's setting on. Both cases had glued-on rubber feet on the bottom of the case. Of course, this totally ruins the receiver case for future mounting on the correct FT-154. Fortunately, a BC-348 case is not too difficult to find. Don't worry that the inside paper tag might not match your version receiver. Most receivers were indiscriminately mounted in any case handy while in the repair depot so today most BC-348 receivers are not in matching cases.

The current prices for the shock mount reflects its rarity. An FT-154 might sell for $150 to $200+ but sometimes you'll find them reasonably priced (even on eBay.)

The FT-154 shock mount

PL-103 - This receptacle is mounted to back of the FT-154 Shock Mount and is what the SO-143 plugs into when the receiver is mounted to FT-154. There are two versions that were made, the PL-P-103, which is straight back exit type and the PL-Q-103, which is a right-angle exit. The +/-28vdc input, the audio output and the remote standby line are all connected to the BC-348 via PL-103. The photo to the right shows a close up of the PL-P-103. As can be seen, this connector assembly has several parts to it. You can also reference the photo of the FT-154 shock mount to see where and how the PL-103 mounts. Be aware that the original mounting screws were "shouldered" and center PL-103 for proper alignment with the receiver SO-143 plug. Be careful using lock washers with these screws since some washers will not allow the screw "shoulder" to center the mounting. The cables exit out the back of the connector and then are routed down through a metal tube that either points directly to the rear or points to the side. The wrinkle finish metal cover goes over the entire connector and only the metal tube can be seen exiting from under the shock mount.

There are some vertical exit plugs for the BC-348, the PL-P-103 (same identification as the straight back exit which is confusing,) and these plugs do work fine. It's tight clearance from the bottom of the outlet tube to the table surface but you'll have about a half an inch which is plenty of room for the cable. Originally, these plugs were used when the BC-348 receiver was going to be mounted in a manner other than directly on a table top or the table had a hole for routing the cables underneath. At present these are the only easily available PL-103 and they show up regularly on eBay or can sometimes be purchased from Fair Radio Sales.

If You Can't Find a PL-103 - The correct PL-103 receptacle is very difficult to find and usually very expensive. While you are searching for this part, you'll probably want to run your BC-348. Buy a packet of "Push-On Connectors - Female .187" x .032" - these crimp onto the wire ends and then will push onto the flat finger contacts of the SO-143 plug on the BC-348. They are a fairly "tight fit" and won't pull off easily. You can make up a harness that has 14 ga. wires for the 28vdc input (LV+ and LV-) and 20 ga. wires for the Standby Relay function and the Audio Output (if you want to use this output rather than the phone jacks on the front of the receiver.) This set-up will look totally original unless you look at the rear of the receiver and the Push-On Connectors work great. When a PL-103 receptacle is found, you can use the same harness by removing the Push-On Connectors and then soldering the harness wires to the proper pins of the PL-103.

 Close up of the PL-P-103 assembly

DM-28 Dynamotor Details

Finding the DM-28 and What to Look For - The correct dynamotor for the BC-348 is the DM-28 which operates on 24vdc to 28vdc input, originally supplied by the aircraft battery-charger system. The dynamotor provides an average of  220vdc output. It takes about 1.8A under full load to run the dynamotor. But the initial start current, that is, the current required to actually get the armature moving, is closer to 8A or 9A. This current is only required for an instant and as soon as the armature begins to move the current drops rapidly. Additionally, the tube heaters are run from the 28vdc buss and they add to the total current necessary to power-up the receiver. The DM-28 assembly consists of the dynamotor, the filter assembly, the terminal strip and the chassis. You'll need to find the entire DM-28 assembly, as shown in the photo to the right.

DM-28 prices vary from source to source. E-Bay prices were normally around $125 for the complete assembly, although lately (10-2010) the prices have risen to over $200 for the complete unit. Swap meet prices might be less, if you are lucky enough to find a DM-28 at a swap meet. Sometimes just the dynamotor turns up but, without all of the other parts, it will only be useful as a spare unit. Most restorers feel that the time saved in an eBay purchase makes up for the higher prices - at least you will have the DM-28 and can proceed with the project.

photos right: The DM-28 fully assembled and ready to install.    To the far right: Showing the unit with the bottom cover removed to reveal the filtering components and the terminal strip.

Servicing the DM-24 (BC-224 Dynamotor) or DM-28 (BC-348 Dynamotor)

The earlier version receiver, the BC-224, uses a DM-24 dynamotor that is almost identical to the DM-28. I recently (2015) had to service a DM-24 and remembered to take photos along the way. The following section has photos and other details that can be applied to either the DM-24 or the DM-28 dynamotors.

Servicing the DM-24 or DM-28 - More than likely, your newly acquired DM-24 or 28 will not have had anyone checking the lubrication of the bearings in the last several decades, if ever. You are going to have to pull the end-bells of the dynamotor to check the bearings. The end-bells are mounted with two screws that are usually "safety-wired" to prevent them from loosening over time. You'll have to remove the safety wire and then remove the screws then the end-bells should easily come off. Once the end-bells are off, you can inspect the commutators. There normally will be darkening of copper where the brushes were riding on the commutator but there should be very little wear. Remove the brushes but be very careful to observe and mark their orientation because you have to re-install them exactly the same way. I usually use a small paint "dot" to indicate location and orientation. Next, the bearing/brush end caps need to be removed in order to remove the armature. First remove the two ball bearing covers to access the grease-side of the ball bearings. There is a thin gasket that will very likely be damaged upon removal. Be careful and probably only the screw holes will suffer and the gasket can still be reused. Remove the three long screws and nuts that hold the end caps to the main housing. The end caps are usually a tight fit into the main housing but don't try to "wedge" them off using a screw driver or you'll mar the metal. Instead use a small drift to tap the end cap from the opposite side through the clearance area between the field coils at the top of the main housing. Use a small hammer and tap lightly until you see the end cap start to show a gap in the fit to the main housing. Then you can lightly pry the end cap loose and not damage the metal. If the ball bearings are stuck in the end cap just use a socket wrench (about 9/16" size) as a drift to tap the ball bearing loose from the end cap. Be sure the socket size works against the ball bearing outer housing. Next, remove the screws that mount the field coil winding wires to the brush barrels. Now you should be able to remove the end caps.
At this point the armature can be removed from the main housing. The ball bearings are a tight press fit and difficult to remove but it shouldn't be necessary unless there is severe damage to the commutator or the ball bearings. At this point we're going to clean the commutators using 600 grit aluminum oxide paper. Wipe the bright copper segments with denatured alcohol to clean and clean between the segments with a stiff paint brush. Next, clean the ball bearings. You'll probably see old, brownish-yellow grease that is not really in the ball bearings anymore. Clean the ball bearings with WD-40 and a small stiff paint brush to remove the dried grease. Then use denatured alcohol as a solvent to remove the WD-40. Blow out with compressed air, if you have it available, otherwise just let the bearings air dry (it only takes a few minutes.) Repack the ball bearings with new wheel bearing grease. The newer wheel bearing greases are usually red in color and good for very high temperatures. Rotate the armature as you work in the grease. Use your thumb to force the grease into the bearing. When the bearing is full, it should look like the photo below left.

You can now reassembly the dynamotor. The commutator with the smaller more numerous segments is the HV side. The end caps are marked with embossed lettering to indicate whether it is the HV side or the LV side. Also, the field coil wires are usually color-coded so be sure you have the armature installed correctly. Be sure you've cleaned the end caps around the brush barrels and where the ball bearings mount. Cleaning the bearing area will assure that the end cap reassembly just slides into place. Once both end caps are in place, install the long screws and nuts and evenly tighten them. This will bring the end caps into alignment and proper mounting. There should be a spacer in each of the ball bearing to end cover area. Be sure to check that they are the proper ones for the particular side. You might have to slightly "tap" the ball bearing (using the socket) to get the alignment correct for the proper spacer. This places the commutators in the proper alignment with the brush barrels.

Now you can re-install the brushes. Apply 27vdc to LV+ and LV- terminals (or 13.8vdc for the DM-24) and the dynamotor should start running very smoothly and very quietly. Remove the voltage and replace the end-caps. Check the condition of the rubber mounts - they should be elastic and not all dried out and hard. If you find hardened motor mounts they will have to be replaced otherwise the dynamotor will run noisily.

The photo above right shows a DM-24 about halfway through a servicing. Note that the parts are on the workbench just above the dynamotor. The brushes and brush barrels are marked with colored dots to assure correct orientation and location of the brushes when reassembled.

The photo left shows the LV ball bearing repacked with modern wheel bearing grease.

The photo right shows the DM-24 reassembled and ready to have the end bells remounted.

Note that this particular DM-24-H is built by Wincharger Corporation. Wincharger was a popular "farm radio" battery charging system (6vdc battery) powered by a relatively small airplane propeller (~ 4 ft dia) that drove a generator. The Wincharger was mounted on a small tower that was mounted to the roof of rural farm houses.

Other Useful Information

VT Designation to Standard Tube Identification for the BC-348 J, N and Q Versions

VT-116 = 6SJ7                             VT-150 = 6SA7                      VT-233 = 6SR7

VT-117 = 6SK7                           VT-152 = 6K6GT                      

Schematics - These are available from several sources. I'm using the schematic that is in "Surplus Schematic Handbook" by Kenneth B. Grayson W2HDM, which was part of the CQ Technical Series, published by Cowan Publishing Corporation in 1960. My references to various components are from this schematic except that I have added a letter prefix to identify what kind of component it is. So, R-84 is listed on the schematic and parts list as 84. Manuals and schematics are available free from many online sources. BAMA has available the correct manual for the BC-348 J, N and Q versions. The schematic available on BAMA for the J, N and Q is actually for the earlier versions and is not usable for the J, N and Q versions. I'm including this link to my scan of the correct schematic for the BC-348 J, N and Q from the "Surplus Schematic Handbook."  (1.7M)    BC348Q Schematic

Retrofitting the Parts and Testing the BC-348-Q, N & J

Before you Begin the Retrofit - If the modified BC-348 you've selected for the retrofit is in great condition and appears mostly complete, it's probably a good idea to get the receiver operational on its AC power supply. It probably did work at one time, especially if it looks like a nicely done job, so getting the receiver operational before the retrofit of the dynamotor will reduce the amount of work you have to do later.  
How to Change the Tube Heaters Parallel Wiring Back to Series Parallel - Look at the two drawings that are shown below. One shows the typical Parallel hook-up that is found in most AC modifications. The other shows the correct, original Series-Parallel connections for the tube heater strings. Most of the time, the conversion to Parallel only has a few jumps and a couple of extra wires to remove. Once you know what to look for by looking at the drawings below, it becomes fairly easy to remove the tube heater modifications. You'll have to install R-84 and R-85 as shown in the photo left. The terminal board (pin 3) is the +24vdc tube heaters connection (sometimes pin 1 in some receivers - see note below with drawing.) The resistor from pin 3 to pin 1 is R-85, 5 ohms 1W and connects +24vdc to the tube heaters for the AF output, 1 & 2 RF amps and the Converter tubes. Also connected to pin 3 is R-84, 7 ohms 1W that also connects to pin 7 of the IF amplifier tube and then on through the other IF amp tubes and the Det-AVC tube. There is a shield that mounts over the IF amp tube socket so R-84 leads must be sleeved and mounted close to the chassis with the one lead coming up vertically to the terminal board. This provides good clearance for the shield.

Underneath the RF/AF chassis (remove the front panel access cover to access) you will have to remove the Parallel wiring modifications and return the wiring to Series-Parallel. You will also have to add R-82, 190 ohms 2W from pin 2 of the 1RF amp tube to ground. There is a ground lug on the tube socket mounting that was originally used to mount R-85. Note that the wire jump from the AF output tube socket to the Converter tube has to exit through a chassis eyelet and then connects to a terminal on the metal housing for the Converter tube. Usually no changes were done here since the return connection to chassis is from pin 7 of this tube. Reference the wiring diagram shown below for how the original series-parallel is accomplished. Also shown for reference is the typical modified parallel wiring diagram.

Once the tube heater wiring is returned to original, "ohm out" the connections to verify it is correct. Then install the tubes and apply +24vdc to the tube heater terminal and verify the correct voltage on each tube heater, approximately 6vdc. You will probably see about 5.8vdc or so if you use +24.0vdc but remember that a fully charged battery set-up will provide about 27.5vdc. The design allows for wide variation from a low of 24vdc up to about 28vdc. 

photo above: Placement of R-84 and R-85, the black resistors, are 2W wire wound of modern design. Originals were carbon and hard to find. The IF shield has been removed for the photo.

Original +24vdc Series-Parallel Wiring - This wiring diagram shows how the tube heater wiring is accomplished for Series-Parallel operation on +24vdc. The wire from pin 7 of the 2nd RF amp tube socket passes through an eyelet in the chassis and is then connected to a terminal on the outside of the Converter tube housing. Sometimes the connections to the terminal strip (where the resistors are mounted) are inverted - that is - connections going to pin 1 go to pin 3 and vice versa.

Typical Modified Tube Heater Wiring for 6.3vac Operation - This wiring diagram will show what is usually found in BC-348 receivers that have been modified for operation on an AC power supply that provided 6.3vac for the tube heaters. This is how most of the AC modified BC-348 receivers seem to be wired but there are other variations that accomplish the same thing. As mentioned in the Series-Parallel description about the terminal strip - it is common to find pin 1 and pin 3 connections inverted from what is shown here.

Wiring the Dial Lights Back to Series - Once the heaters are in the proper configuration, the next step is to change the dial lamps wiring back to series. Remove the dial cover to access the dial lamp sockets. There will be two wires installed between each lamp socket. Remove the non-original wire which should leave one original wire connecting the two sockets to each other. The left side lamp socket should also be connected to the wire that runs through the panel on the left side. Then install the wire that comes through the panel on the right side to the right side lamp socket. This wire should then connect to R-111, the "DIAL LIGHTS" potentiometer. >>> >>>  From the pot a non-original wire is usually connected to the chassis lug. Remove that wire and install R-81. R-81 is a 60 ohm 2W wire wound resistor but it isn't too critical, (I installed 100 ohms because that was all I could find and it works fine.) R-81 connects between R-111 and chassis. Install #47 lamps and test with +24vdc applied to the +LV input. The dial lamp circuit is connected directly to the switched +24vdc input and jumped to the tube heater wiring inside the dynamotor chassis. Usually, in an AC conversion, you'll find that the dial lamps are connected to the tube heaters in some way. For dynamotor operation you'll have to disconnect the lamps from there and connect to the +24vdc "on" position at the AVC-MVC switch.
Rebuilding the Wiring Harness Back to Original - Identify each of the wires from the harness that are going to have to connect to the dynamotor terminals. There should be five wires. HV+ is the B+ line (consists of two white with red tracer wires.) HV- is the B- and bias line. Blank or "not ID'd" is the connection for the tube heaters - it is internally jumped to LV+ inside the dynamotor chassis. Sometimes, since these two wires are jumped inside the dynamotor, you might find these two wires reversed in position in the harness. Check that the plain white wire goes to the AVC-MVC switch and the wire that is white with a black tracer goes to the tube sockets. When operating the BC-348 on a dynamotor, it doesn't matter the order of these two wires but if you're utilizing an original harness for operation with an AC power supply you'll have to verify where these two wires are connected in the receiver circuitry. LV+ is the switched +24vdc and dial lamps line. LV- line is connected to chassis. Normally, modifiers didn't change any of the wiring placement in the harness so, hopefully, all that will be required is to install spade lugs on the wire sets. You may have to add wire if the length of the original wire has been cut to fit into the modified AC power supply. Every modified BC-348 is somewhat different but try to keep to original wiring routing as much as possible. If the either LV line needs to be lengthened be sure to use 16ga. wire on these lines. Once you have the order and length correct, then install the spade lugs. These have to be soldered to the wire ends, as original. Remove any plastic insulation on the spade lug ends and then solder to the wire ends.  To make the harness look original install cable lace made of waxed string. Connect wire harness to the dynamotor terminal board to complete the installation.

photo right: The harness spade lugs that connect to the dynamotor terminal board. The LV- wire had to be extended in length so the splice was covered using black shrink tubing. The spade lugs were made to look like originals by taking a ring lug and cutting out a section to form a spade lug that has the rounded shape that the original spade lugs had.

Powering the BC-348 with 24vdc to 28vdc - The original power source for the BC-348 was the aircraft battery-charger buss that provided around 24vdc when the airplane was non-operational and on the ground. This was usually when all the equipment was pre-flight tested and the BC-375 transmitter set-up for the frequencies to be used by the radioman. Once the aircraft was in flight the battery-charger system provided nearly 28vdc to the radio equipment. If you are going to operate the BC-348 on batteries expect the voltage to vary from fully charged at about 27vdc down to 23.5vdc (when the batteries need to be charged.) If you are going to operate the receiver on a DC power supply, provide about +27.5vdc for good operation of the tube heaters and the dynamotor. The DC power supply will have to be capable of providing around 6A for the surge current to start the dynamotor. After the dynamotor is up to speed the dynamotor's current draw is usually less than 2A. Remember though, you'll have to add the tube heaters to the current draw since they also run on the +28vdc buss.   >>> >>>   For initial testing connect +27.5vdc to pin 3 or 4 on SO-143 and connect the negative lead to pin 8 or 7. Be sure to use a test jump between pin 2 and 6 to take the receiver out of stand-by. With the +27.5vdc on, switch the AVC-OFF-MVC switch to AVC. The dynamotor will come on along with the dial lights. After about 30 or 40 seconds the receiver should come to life. Use earphones (of the proper Z for what you have T-115A/B wired for) and tune in some stations on SW BC. Check all of the controls and see that they function. Tune in stations on all bands to test. Switch to MVC and turn on the CW OSC. You can now tune in some SSB or CW stations on the ham bands. Note that in AVC, the VOLUME will be set rather low since the AVC is controlling the receiver sensitivity and VOLUME controls the audio gain. In MVC you'll have to advance the VOLUME higher since VOLUME now controls sensitivity and the audio gain is at maximum. This gives the proper ratio of RF to BFO injection for good CW or SSB demodulation. 
IF Alignment - The BC-348 uses an Intermediate Frequency of 915kc. The passband selectivity is directly related to how the IF is aligned. There are other factors, such as the amount of coupling in the IF transformers and other factors of design, but an accurate alignment of the IF system will result in the best selectivity that the BC-348 is capable of. You will have to determine the exact crystal frequency of the Crystal Filter first. This can be determined by switching in the Crystal Filter and then sweeping an RF Signal Generator coupled to the converter grid. The crystal should be very close to 915kc. You'll hear a "peaking" of the background noise as you sweep through the crystal frequency. At the exact peak of the response is the exact crystal frequency. Whatever the crystal frequency is, that is where the RF Signal Generator should be set for the IF alignment.  
To assure that the Crystal Filter will operate correctly and be a useable asset to operation, you should perform the IF alignment with the Crystal Filter ON. This will narrow the IF passband to about 1KC. The end result is you'll have a Crystal Filter that works great when the alignment is finished. Now, adjust all of the IF transformers, both top and bottom adjustments, for the peak response to the RF Signal Generator input frequency. Monitor the audio output using an AC voltmeter. You'll have to use 1000~ modulation on your RF Signal Generator for the meter to read and operate the receiver in MVC for the best results.

You can also use an unmodulated signal and monitor the AVC line, with the receiver in AVC. If you have a digital frequency counter monitoring the RF Signal Generator frequency, check it often as you proceed with the IF adjustments. Go through all of the IF adjustments twice to assure accurate adjustment. This method of alignment will result in the best IF selectivity for the BC-348. Also, the Crystal Filter will operate correctly since the IF is adjusted to exactly the crystal frequency with the Crystal Filter in the circuit.

RF Alignment - The accuracy of the RF alignment affects how well the BC-348 tracks - that is, how accurate the dial readout is. Since the receiver was adjusted at the factory with more or less fixed components, there are no padder adjustments for the tracking except for the LF band. The tracking is adjusted with trimmer capacitors on each of the tuning ranges. These are adjusted at the top of each of the bands. How accurately you adjust the RF Signal Generator frequency input, the receiver's tuning dial and each of the trimmers, results in how accurate the final tracking is. Most BC-348 receivers adjust up to be very accurate - within the limits of an analog readout and a tuning range that spans several megacycles.

photo: 1943 Wells-Gardner BC-348-Q sn 11227 with the DM-28 Dynamotor installed.

Part Two -  BC-348 - The "Grid Cap" Tubes Versions

Let's start out by recognizing that the Grid-Cap Tubes (GCT) version of the BC-348 is a completely different receiver if compared to the later Single-Ended Tubes (SET) version. The SET version was not given a new designation because the SET version was a "cost reduced" design that had to be interchangeable for the end user. But we are looking at the circuit in order to restore the GTC version back to original dynamotor operation and the first thing that will be encountered is that the earlier receiver circuit is 90% different from the later versions. Even the component designations are different for the few identical components encountered. Also, within all of the GCT versions there are many slight variations in components used and construction, so the first thing you'll need is the proper documentation for your particular GCT version and, if a "parts set" is needed for the restoration, it should be a similar vintage GCT version receiver.

Accessing Your Restoration Candidate

Despite their differences, much of what is presented in Part One is applicable to the earlier GCT versions of the BC-348. Since the receivers were considered interchangeable for the end-user, the exterior of the receiver is almost identical to the later versions. This means that a lot of the chassis, cabinet and some panel parts are interchangeable. Also, the general retrofit techniques presented in Part One are applicable to the earlier receivers. But, a look at the circuit or schematic will show you that we are going to be working on a very different receiver. Here are some of the main differences:

1. Early versions (GCT version) use entirely different tubes. The RF amps and one IF amp are 6K7s, a 41 is used for the audio output, the LO is a 6J5 and the Mixer is a 6L7. These tubes functions were replaced with 6SK7, 6K6 and 6SA7 tubes in the later receivers.

2. A 991 Neon bulb is used a a voltage regulator for the LO on GCT receivers. Not used in SET receivers.

3. A 6F7 (large seven pin glass tube) is used as the 2IF and BFO functions. This tube will have a separate metal shield installed. This tube's functions were replaced by the 6SR7 and the 6SJ7 in the SET versions.

4. A 6B8 is used for the 3IF and Det/AVC functions. This metal octal with a grid cap tube was replaced by the 6SR7 and 6SJ7 tubes in the SET version.

5. The BFO and the Crystal Filter are fully shielded in square cans mounted on the top of the chassis.

6. A tracking RF gain control is coupled to the tuning condenser. Not used on SET versions.

7. The receiver construction uses component mounting that is "old-style RCA" using four component mounting boards with wires routed through a harness down to the tubes. This was simplified for the SET versions to mount most of the components on or near the tube sockets with only two component boards utilized. The use of so many component boards means much of the wiring is in harnesses that makes "wire tracing" very difficult.

8. Capacitor mounting under the dynamotor uses several individual metal body, oil filled, dual capacitors mounted together and connected to the circuit through wires in the harness. The SET version simplifies the component placement and use.

9. Placement of the audio output tube is significantly different with early versions locating the type 41 on the main chassis near the audio output transformer. The SET version locates the 6K6 on the small chassis on the right front of the receiver (with the two RF amplifier tubes - where the mixer tube is on early versions.) NOTE: Some GCT versions have a type 6K6 audio output tube.

There are several more changes such as layout, component designations and manufacturers used, wiring harness, etc. Since different tubes are utilized, the original series-parallel wiring is slightly different than the single-ended tubes version and the conversion to AC was slightly different. Dial lamp conversion is slightly different because of the +28vdc source changed in later receivers. You will have to make use of the correct wiring diagram for the early receivers. This is not a schematic but a pictorial of how the wires are connected to the various components, component boards and the harnesses.

BC-348-C Assessment

 The victim,...I mean the receiver (shown above) to be retrofitted with the DM-28 dynamotor belongs to KØDWC who intends to run this BC-348-C in the ARC-8 configuration (with a dynamotor operated ART-13 transmitter.) The BC-348-C version was built by RCA in 1941. It was common to convert the "B" or "C" variations to cover 200kc to 500kc and then re-designate those receivers as "R."  However, this particular "C" has not had the LF conversion making it somewhat rare.

Unfortunately, like much of the rare military gear that is found today, this early BC-348-C was at one time owned (and hacked up) by an avid reader of CQ magazine publications. CQ advocated the wholesale destruction of much of the military surplus gear under the guise of "modifications for ham radio operation" - in other words, mods that were poorly engineered and, in most cases, unnecessary. "Modification for modification's sake" was the CQ motto and many hams bought into the idea that they could "out engineer" the Professional Radio Engineering Teams that designed military radio gear to perform reliably under the worst conditions imaginable. Also, that they (the hams) could perform the mechanical and technical work better than the professional radio assemblers and technicians that were employed by the major radio manufacturing companies. Today we see these "hamster" results in the sloppy workmanship of hacked up modified gear we have to try to restore back to original operation and performance. A properly designed AC power supply conversion that was well-thought-out and well filtered was all that was necessary as a modification and this would not be a serious problem to convert back to dynamotor operation (or use "as-is.") However, this BC-348-C example we are restoring has had several other modifications besides the AC power supply and the quality of design and rework are strictly of the "hamster" caliber. Luckily for military radio enthusiasts, most BC-348 receivers encountered are usually not nearly so compromised by modifications as this example was.

photo left:  Note the metal octal tube on the AC power supply. This is a 6F6 audio output modification. Also note the metal octal next to the band switch drive. This is the 6C5 "hacked" in to replace the 41 audio output tube and convert that stage to a 1st audio amplifier stage to drive the 6F6. Note the cable routed to where the DIAL LIGHTS control was. This is now a separate AF Gain control and ON/OFF switch.

photo right: Lots of extra cables and components added here to further confuse anyone who attempts to restore this example back to original. The fuse mount and the SO-143 were missing. Replacements are installed but not wired - yet.
Preliminary Inspection - The photos above show the BC-348-C chassis in "as found" condition. A poorly designed and inadequately filtered AC power supply is obvious when looking at the photo above right. Also, note that an audio output stage has been added using a 6F6 tube. Additionally, the original type 41 audio output tube was removed, the large six pin socket removed and an octal socket installed so the stage could be changed to a 6C5 First AF Amplifier to drive the 6F6. Due to the poorly filtered AC supply and the additional amplification, the hum level in this BC-348 was exceptionally loud. Totally unnecessary modifications resulting in poor performance! The original audio output circuit is sufficient to drive a matched load to high volume.

Unfortunately, the modifier decided to grind off the bosses and drill-out the threads that are normally used to mount the dynamotor (or the typical AC power supply.) This means that helicoils and spacers will have to be installed to assure that the DM-28 mounts to the chassis correctly. Also, the DIAL LIGHTS control has been replaced with an "on-off" switch/AF Gain combo (another circuit modification.) Luckily, KØDWC supplied a SO-143 connector and an original type audio output transformer (note that neither is wired into the circuit.)

Note in the photo of the underneath that a filter choke was mounted to the side panel. This required removal of the original Candohm resistor pack to allow clearance. The shielded cables are additions for the 6F6 mod and the twisted pair of white wires go to the mod'd AF/Gain and "on-off" switch.

All of the front panel modification holes had already been repaired by KØDWC so they are not easily seen. The other "hamster" mods included the addition of an SO-239 connector for the antenna and ground connections and an additional switch in the upper left panel area (repair of the holes might be visible in the front panel photos.)

All things considered, this BC-348 would probably have been a "parts set" had it not been the rare "C" version without the LF conversion. Although the receiver has been severely altered, it can be restored back to its original configuration using a DM-28 for it power source.

Commonly Missing Parts and Required Documentation

Fortunately, many of the hard to find parts are the same in both versions of the BC-348.

DM-28 Dynamotor - Same in both versions, the DM-28. Covered in Part One.

SO-143 - Power Input Connector is the same in both versions. Covered in Part One.

115A/B Audio Output Transformer/Choke - This unit is somewhat different in the GCT versions and is designated 101A/B/C or 123A/B/C. One side of the choke is connected to chassis internally, .05uf capacitor connects to pin 6 (C-101 - BFO TC) and the audio output transformer connects to different pins. You can substitute 115A/B for the earlier 101A/B/C or 123A/B/C but be aware that it ha to be connected differently. More details below in "Substituting 115A/B for missing 101A/B/C."

FT-154 & PL-103 - The same shock mount and connector for both versions. Covered in Part One.

Filter Capacitor 70 - This dual filter capacitor is only in the Q, N and J versions. The GCT version uses several oil filled, dual capacitors connected via the harness to the circuit.

Resistors - Most GCT versions have R-501A/B removed to operate the tube heaters on 6.3vac. R-501A/B consists of a 3.0 ohm 1.5 watt WW resistor and a 190 ohm 1.5 watt WW, both in a package that looks somewhat like a Candohm-type resistor. The series resistor (3.0 ohm) limits the surge current on cold heaters and the parallel resistor (190 ohm) will slightly raise the heater voltage on the audio output tube heater. Some versions have different component designations but the values and function are the same. The load resistor and potentiometer for the dial lamps have the same values as the later versions but the designations are R-503 for the 60 ohm load and R-500 for the 200 ohm potentiometer (but designations do vary with the particular version within the GCT classification.)

Nomenclature Note - Since the GCT versions are different receivers as far as the circuit and tube types used, different designations are used for all of the resistors and capacitors that perform similar functions in the Q, N and J versions. Also note that since the GCT version was built longer and by more contractors than the SET versions, the component designations are somewhat different within the various GCT types. Check your particular GCT version against all of the earlier documentation to decide what is correct for your BC-348. As with our reference to the various components in Part One, I add "R" or "C" to resistors or capacitors so the reader can easily identify the type of component referenced. In the manual or schematic these components are only identified by the number.

Schematic - The GCT version schematic is available on the BAMA site. Also available is the complete manual for the early BC-348 series that has wiring diagrams, parts lists and a lot of other useful information. It's a large file at around 9meg but the wiring diagrams are required, so download it.

Use the Wiring Diagrams - Wiring diagrams are not schematics. Wiring diagrams are pictorial drawings that show the exact routing of all of the wires and their connections to all of the receiver components. The GCT version of the BC-348 is very difficult to "trace out" the wires when trying to find out how a particular receiver has been modified. This is because most of the wiring is routed through harnesses with connections to the different component boards. The easiest way to trace the wiring is to have copies of the wiring diagrams that are in the military manuals. These diagrams show where the original wiring was connected and how it was routed through the harnesses. Using the wiring diagrams will give wire colors but these changed depending on the contractor so you can't go just by the indicated color. You will still have to confirm the correct wires and connections using an ohm meter.

Changing the Tube Heater Wiring back to Series-Parallel

Original Series-Parallel Connections for +28vdc Operation - Since the GCT version makes extensive use of harness routing, the tube heater wiring, at first, seems confusing. This is mainly due to R-501A/B. This WW resistor package is mounted at the back of the chassis (under the dynamotor) so wires have to be routed via the harnesses to make those connections. Two different component boards are utilized in the routing.

The simplified drawing below shows the correct original wiring for a Series-Parallel connection of the tube heaters to allow operation on +24vdc to +28vdc. If your version uses the 6K6 Audio Output tube then the heater connections are to pins 2 and 7 on that socket.

Modified Parallel Connections for 6.3vac Operation - The simplified drawing below shows the Parallel 6.3vac AC hook-up for the tube heaters that I found in this BC-348-C. Note that R 501A/B is removed so that the 6.3vac heater voltage connects direct in parallel to all of the tubes. On this example, the three wires that originally connected to R-501A/B were all soldered together and taped. It may not be how all examples are modified for AC filament operation, since this receiver had so many other modifications. Generally though, there aren't too many different ways to accomplish the parallel heater connection. If your version uses the 6K6 Audio Output tube then the heater connections are to pins 2 and 7 on that socket.

Miscellaneous Information

Connecting the Dial Lights in Series for GCT Versions - The series wiring for the dial lamps starts from the +28vdc connection on pin 1-Front Switch of the AVC-MVC switch then proceeds through the two lamps in series then exits from the dial housing to the 200 ohm pot and the 60 ohm load. The usual AC power mod is to move the voltage source from the AVC-MVC switch to one of the tube sockets for a 6.3vac voltage source. The lamps are then connected in parallel. The exiting wire on the right side is usually just connected to the chassis but sometimes is routed to a switch or to the 200 ohm pot without the use of the 60 ohm series load. To return to series wiring, remove the added parallel wire between the two lamp sockets. Then move the original wire that was moved to parallel the incoming voltage connection on the left side socket and move it to the other lamp socket connection. That should be all that is necessary under the dial cover. What is needed from the right side wire is a connection to the 200 ohm DIAL LIGHTS potentiometer and 60 ohm load resistor and then to chassis. Also, on the left side wire, the source of the voltage has to be removed from the tube socket and reconnected to the AVC-MVC switch. This completes the circuit. Be sure that you use #47 lamps in the dial.

Micamold Capacitor and Allen-Bradley Resistor Replacement - On the GCT versions only, Micamold capacitors are used for many bypass and coupling functions. Micamolds are not mica capacitors but are rather paper-wax capacitors inside a molded case. They suffer from the same problems that Sprague "Black Beauties" suffer from, that is, excessive leakage current (only Micamolds are much worse than "Black Beauties" when it comes to reliability.) Inspect your BC-348 carefully and replace any Micamolds that show obvious swelling in the center. This is always an indication of heat build-up due to leakage current. If you plan on using your BC-348 as a station receiver, it's probably a good idea to replace all of the Micamold capacitors in the receiver as they will usually result in frequent rework issues if left in the circuit.

The resistors used in most of the GTC versions are Allen-Bradley manufacture. For some reason, the A-B resistors made during WWII (and for sometime afterwards) exhibit chronic drift problems. It is not predictable as to whether high values, e.g., over 100K, will drift higher or whether the lower values will suffer value drift. It's best to check all of the resistors for drift and replace any that are more than 20% out of tolerance.

VT Tube Designations for the Grid-Capped Tubes Versions        VT-48 = 41      VT-93 = 6B8       VT-70 =  6F7          VT-65 = 6J5         VT-91 = 6J7         VT-86 = 6K7

Substituting 115A/B for Missing 101A/B/C or 123A/B/C - This BC-348-C was missing the original 101A/B/C audio output unit which is a transformer/choke/capacitor combination. This unit is identified as 123A/B/C in the later GCT versions. I had only a 115A/B available for installation. Here's the pin connections that have to be changed if you find yourself in a similar predicament. Be aware that 101A/B/C & 123A/B/C also had a .05uf capacitor internally connected to pin 6.

101A/B/C       1        2        3        4        5        6  - (6 connected to .05uf capacitor to chassis, pin 1 is the choke - aka 123A/B/C)
115A/B           5        1        3        2        4        6  - (6 is connected to one end of the choke and pin 5 is the other end of the choke)

Using a 115A/B to replace a 101A/B/C requires pin 6 of the 115A/B to be tied to chassis but the wire that comes from the BFO switch must be connected to a .05uf capacitor to chassis. In an early versus late comparison, there are two resistors externally connected to 115A/B in the later versions of the receiver. These need to be removed if it is necessary to sub the 115A/B for a missing 101A/B/C. A few of the latest versions of the GCT version used the 115A/B transformer and are wired accordingly. Check your particular GCT version using the correct documentation. There are many slight variations from contract to contract.

Rebuilding the Dynamotor Connections from the Harness - Most of the time the harness spade lugs had to be removed for solder connections to the AC power supply. See this subject in Part One as it is an identical procedure for the GCT versions.

Rebuilding the DM-28 Dynamotor - See this subject covered in Part One. The procedure is the same.

Alignment - This is basically the same although the locations of the IF and RF tracking adjustments are somewhat different. Different type trimmer capacitors are used in the earlier versions but they are a better quality component than the types used in the SET versions. The same basic procedure is used for either type receiver. 915kc IF frequency. Be sure to do the IF alignment with the Crystal Filter ON (in the circuit.) There is an adjustment for the Crystal Filter accessed from the top of the can. Adjust this for highest gain first and then trim for best Crystal Filter action. This will assure you have a working Crystal Filter that will be an asset to operation of your BC-348.

Power Up - Same as covered in Part One.

photo left: Top of the chassis with the BC-348-C finished and the DM-28 installed. When compared to the before photo, note that now a type 41 tube is installed for the audio output. This required re-installation of a fiber-type large six pin tube socket, as original.

photo right
: Underneath the BC-348C. Much cleaner wiring now that it is back to original. Note that 501A/B is two modern WW resistors that are mounted on a vintage fiber component board.

Part Three - BC-224, the +12 to +14 VDC Receiver

The BC-224 is quite similar to the GCT version of the BC-348 except that the tube heaters are wired differently and the dynamotor (along with the tube heaters) operate on +12 to +14 vdc. The initial BC-224-A is a very different receiver - after all, it came out in 1935. The later versions were built to be very similar to the BC-348 except for power requirements. Both appearance and performance are just about the same as the BC-348. Since the BC-224 only was built up to 1942, it's not very common and therefore it's lucky that nearly all of the parts are exactly the same as the BC-348. The exceptions are the DM-24 dynamotor and the receiver data plate.

I obtained this BC-224-H receiver in a trade that involved some restoration work on a couple of early Crosley battery sets. As usual, the BC-224 receiver had a couple of "hamster mods." The most serious was a non-original toggle switch (used for AC power "on-off") located just above the CW OSC switch. The other mod was the typical inadequately filtered AC power supply installed in the dynamotor bay. Luckily, the BC-224 mods were not very invasive and only the non-original hole was a serious problem. There was also a large exit hole in the back of the cabinet for the AC power cord but since the bottom rail (which has the two slide-clips) had been cut off, I wasn't going to be able to use the cabinet anyway.  >>> >>>  My first thought was to rebuild the AC power supply into a dual section filtered supply that would allow the BC-224 to operate without hum. In talking to fellow military radio enthusiast, KØDWC, his suggestion was to try to locate a DM-24 dynamotor and retrofit the receiver with its correct power unit and run the set "original." Sounded like a good idea!

The next weekend I casually mentioned my DM-24 quest on the Vintage Military Collector's Net and was surprised when W6JRY came back with the statement ", I just looked in my dynamotor junk box and the one on the top of the pile was a DM-24." We agreed on a trade of some matching vintage air condensers and meters for one of Jerry's projects and the trade took place.

Dynamotor Servicing - This is covered in the section above on the DM-24 and DM-28 dynamotors. The photos in that section are of the DM-24 used in this receiver.

Front Panel Hole Problem - A non-original toggle switch was located just above the CW OSC switch. This is a common modification done in the 1950s to allow an AC ON-OFF switch to be mounted on the front panel. With just a little bit of thought, the perpetrator could actually have used the AVC-OFF-MVC switch (as original) instead. But, as stated, this switch mod commonly found on BC-348s and apparently BC-224s. The AC toggle switch wiring used some unused posts on the rear component board so electrical removal was no problem. The AC power supply was also removed. Luckily, the modifications used the original dynamotor harness which was still intact.

To fill the hole, I used five minute epoxy. First clean the surfaces. Then apply a piece of masking tape over the hole on the front of the panel. Turn the receiver on its face - knobs down on the table. Mix up the epoxy and fill the hole from the rear. Let the epoxy set up for several hours (overnight is better.) Then remove the tape and what you should find is a perfectly flat patch to the hole. I used Artist's Acrylic Mars Black to paint the hole patch. You can texture the acrylic using a Q-tip to get it to match. The photo right shows the patch much more prominently than it really appears. This is due to the camera flash.

photo above: The BC-224-H after dynamotor retrofit and cosmetic cleaning. The receiver is mounted on the FT-154 shock mount.

Cabinet Problem - As mentioned above, the modifications to the cabinet destroyed its ability to be used with an FT-154 shock mount since there was no way to secure the receiver without the slide clips. Luckily, I had a couple of spare cabinets and I selected the best one to use. I noticed that the tag inside indicated that the cabinet was for a BC-348-Q but all of the cabinets are very nearly identical and interchangeable. I managed to remove the original paper label from the old cabinet so I had a good BC-224-H label and after removing the BC-348-Q label, the "224" label was mounted instead. A touch-up paint job was necessary since there was some much paint missing. I first touch up where the paint is missing using Artist's Acrylic Mars Black. After the touch ups are dry, I apply a very thin coat of Mars Black (that has been watered down to thin) to even out the color. This coat has to be applied with a fairly wide brush quickly. Don't brush hard or you'll remove the touch-ups. This last coat is just to even out the color so the touch-ups don't show. Documentation Necessary for Retrofit - The BC-224-H manual is available on BAMA edebris. Be sure to down load the combination manual. This will be for both the BC-348 series and the BC-224 series. Inside the manual are the necessary schematics, wiring diagrams, component board layouts and dynamotor rebuilding information. Also, a parts list for both receivers and alignment information. You will absolutely need the wiring diagrams. These are not schematics but are detailed drawings of exactly where the wires are connected and how they are routed in the receiver. Since the BC-224 is a GCT version receiver and it makes use of several component boards tracing wires is difficult because most wires are routed via harnesses. The wiring diagrams give you all of the details necessary to confirm what modifications were done to your BC-224 and how to put it back to original.

photo above: Wiring diagram of BC-224 showing original tube heater connections for DC operation

Converting AC Operation Modification back to Original DC - To run the tube heaters on 6.3vac only required a few modifications. The heaters were in series-parallel for +12 to 14vdc operation. Originally, two parallel sets of four tubes were connected in series. This essentially was a 6vdc load plus a second 6vdc load for 12vdc total heater voltage requirement. The original wiring for +12 to +14vdc is shown in the diagram to the left. The usual modification for 6.3vac operation was very simple to accomplish and luckily it's just as easy to remove and put back to original DC operation. The modification for 6.3vac required grounding the IF-AF tube heaters at the 6B8 tube on pin 2. There was a chassis soldering lug adjacent to the 6B8 so this was an easy addition. The next mod for AC operation was to locate the wire that comes from pin 13 of the Component Board #274 and is connected to pin 1 of the type 41 tube. This wire is then disconnected from pin 1 and reconnected to pin 6 of the type 41 tube. These two changes were all that was required to then operate the tube heaters on 6.3vac. Usually R54 (on Component Board #272) is shorted out with a wire jumper across the resistor.

To reverse the modification only requires that the one jumper to ground from pin 2 of the 6B8 tube be removed. Then the connection on the type 41 tube that comes from pin 13 on Comp Bd #274 be moved back to pin 1 (from pin 6.) With these two changes the tube heaters are now again in series-parallel. Check R54 and make sure it is in the circuit (remove jumper if that's installed or install a .5 ohm WW resistor if R54 was removed.) There were no modifications required to the tube chassis behind the front panel inspection plate since a ground connection was already there for the AC mod and is the same ground needed for DC operation. Again, check to make sure that resistors 54 and 55 are still installed. If not 55 is a 68 ohm 2W CC resistor and 54 is a 0.5 ohm 5W WW resistor.

photo above: The BC-224-H after retrofit of the correct DM-24-H dynamotor

DC Operation of the Dial Lamps - The dial lamps are connected to the AVC-OFF-MVC switch and ultimately connected to pin 2 of the DM-24 which connected +12 to +14vdc to the dial lamps when the receiver was turned on. The dial lamps usually are connected in parallel for 6.3vac operation and need to be put back to a series connection for +12 to +14vdc operation. Usually the socket shells are grounded and the two center connections are tied together for parallel operation. R60 is disconnected. If R60 (DIAL LAMPS pot) is still present then reconnecting for series operation on +12 to +14vdc is simple. The lamp sockets can't be connected to chassis for DC operation so make sure however this was accomplished is removed. Then wire the socket from the left side lamp to the center pin of the right side lamp and the connect the right side lamp's shell to R-60. Make sure that the source voltage to the left side lamp is from the AVC-OFF-MVC switch (and ultimately connected to pin 2 of the DM-24 dynamotor harness.

Test & Alignment - After rechecking all of the retrofit to make sure everything was accomplished, I connected a +14vdc 18A power supply to pins 3 & 4 for +14 and pins 7 & 8 for -14. I used heavy clip leads for the connections since this was just a test. With application of power, the DM-24 came up to speed, the dial lamps illuminated and after about 30 seconds audio came over the LS-3 loudspeaker. With a 25 ft long wire laying on the floor several stations were received which confirmed that the receiver basically worked.

The next step was aligning the IF and RF which is performed exactly like the GCT BC-348, so I won't bother repeating it again. After alignment, the BC-224 functions exactly like a GCT BC-348. The two receivers are basically the same except for the tube heater wiring and the dynamotor, so similar performance should be expected.  


Performance Expectations for the Single-Ended Tubes Versions

1943 Wells-Garner & Company Contract BC-348-Q sn: 20966

The BC-348-Q is an amazing receiver and the more you use it, the more you'll appreciate the fact that this great performing receiver "does so much, so well, with so little." Being an aircraft receiver, weight had to be kept to a minimum but this little receiver has two RF stages, three IF stages, a Crystal Filter, a BFO and a "1940s accurate" dial readout.

It's surprising that even today the old myths of "not sensitive" or "too broad" still turn up in contemporary reviews of the BC-348. The receiver's performance is directly related to how thoroughly it was rebuilt and how accurately it was aligned along with operating the receiver with the correct impedance speaker. I've used my two BC-348-Q receivers (and a BC-348-R) many times as the station receiver and have found them to be fine receivers. Can adjacent frequency activity be heard? Sure. But does it prevent solid copy? Of course not. Remember, you have a Crystal Filter. With the Crystal Filter "ON" the IF passband will be around 1KC wide. The Crystal Filter will reduce adjacent frequency interference on AM - just be sure to tune the incoming signal "on the nose." Obviously, the critics who keep promoting the "Broad as a Barn" reputation of the BC-348 have never used the Crystal Filter or they have never aligned the IF section of their receiver correctly. I've used the BC-348-Q on CW also. It's a very good CW receiver with very little drift. Of course, the lack of CW activity these days doesn't offer up much of a challenge to the BC-348-Q's selectivity. SSB is also demodulated quite well since in MVC the VOLUME is actually an RF Gain control.

I always find the performance of the BC-348-Q to be a pleasant surprise. Probably because, over the years, I have always heard so many negative comments about the receiver's lack of selectivity and limited features - but this just isn't the case. The BC-348-Q is a great performer that always delivers solid copy even in tough conditions.

Performance Expectations for the Grid-Cap Tubes Versions

GCT versus SET - After working on several receivers from both the SET version and the GCT version it is apparent that each version has its own particular advantages. The advantages are in the mechanical construction and the ease of rework though, not necessarily in performance. For example, the SET versions are much easier to work on since the majority of components are mounted in the circuitry rather than on component boards. However, the GCT versions are a little more stoutly built and have more shielding in the IF/Crystal Filter area and the BFO.

The GCT versions include an ANTENNA TRIM control that is not on the SET versions. This would be an advantage when using an end-fed wire antenna that was untuned. Most ham stations though use the transmitting antenna for receive, so they provide a tuned antenna to the receiver and an antenna trim control is not really needed.

Both receiver-types have plenty of audio and easily drive a matched loudspeaker. If you plan on using a stock LS-3 (8K Z,) be sure you have the audio transformer tap connected to the HI-Z terminal. If you've modified an LS-3 to have a 600 ohm Z input then you'll have to connect to the LO-Z terminal on the audio transformer. Some users believe that there are performance differences when comparing the two versions of the BC-348 but I've found that careful attention to detail when performing the restoration and, most importantly, the final alignment, results in either version performing very well. The two BC-348 versions were considered interchangeable by the military and my experience seems to confirm that there is virtually no difference in performance between properly operating receivers of either type. The main reason that the military and contractors went to the SET version was cost. The SET was much cheaper to build, easier to work on and, in the end, performed just about the same as the earlier GCT versions.

The finished RCA BC-348-C owned by KØDWC


AC Power Supply Enhancement for the BC-348


How to Build (or Rebuild) a "Homebrew" AC Power Supply for Good Filtering - Many users don't want to run their BC-348 on the original dynamotor. Though convenience is certainly a factor, so is the dynamotor noise. The noise from the dynamotor is not loud at all and in the original aircraft installation, the dynamotor wasn't heard since the radioman used 'phones and the ambient noise was much, much louder. Today, if the station transmitter that the BC-348 is to be used with operates on AC, then dynamotor operation probably isn't something desired. Today, there is absolutely no excuse for "hacking up" an original dynamotor operated BC-348 just to modify it for AC operation because practically every single BC-348 for sale has already been converted for AC operation. However, most of the AC power supplies that are installed in BC-348s are inadequately filtered and hum is quite audible and sometimes very annoying, especially when using earphones.

There are two methods to achieve good filtering. If a Pi-network is used for the filter, that is, one choke and two electrolytic capacitors, then the value of the capacitors will have to be rather high. Two 40uf electrolyics would be typical for a Pi-network filter. If a dual section filter is used, that is two chokes and three capacitors, then the value of the three electrolyics can be reduced to 10uf each.

In order to have very good filtering, two filter chokes and three filter capacitors should be used. This dual section filter will reduce the hum level to "imperceptible." You might have to replace the power transformer since the extra filter choke will drop the B+ somewhat. Most transformers were providing higher B+ than necessary anyway and the builder used a series load resistor to drop the voltage to about +230vdc. Another trick with two filter chokes is to use "choke input" which eliminates the input filter capacitor. This will drop the B+ significantly but it will improve regulation. With "choke input" the value of the electrolytics should be increased to 20uf. Whether you will be able to use "choke input" will depend on your power transformer's HV winding supplying a high enough AC to the rectifier to compensate for the voltage drop in the filter since the lack of an input capacitor doesn't have the rectifier output "charging to peak." There are many solutions to the filtering problem and the proper B+ voltage.

Remember, the original design of the BC-348 was as a DC operated receiver so filtering was minimal and trying to just use a typical Pi-filter arrangement for the power supply will result in too much audible hum unless a significant increase in the capacitance value is used. Even then, the hum is still present although usually reduced to a level where it isn't too annoying if the volume is kept at a fairly high level.

The original design of the BC-348 audio output stage was to ground the cathode and to negative bias the grid (fixed bias.) To achieve a negative bias the negative from the dynamotor was connected through the choke inside the audio output transformer unit to chassis. The resistance of the choke was about 250 ohms which elevated the negative above chassis and provided about minus 16vdc bias voltage. When designing your AC power supply, you will have to connect the CT of the  power transformer to the B- line which then connects to the choke inside the audio output transformer unit. Then, in order to achieve good filtering, the negatives of the filter capacitors should connect to B-, not to chassis. This will provide good filtering for the -16vdc bias voltage and also will result in a power supply that has no perceptible hum. The exception is the last filter capacitor in the dual section filter which should be connected to chassis.

When it comes to construction, the main problem is lack of space in the GCT versions since the chassis extends under the dynamotor. This isn't the case with the SET version and removal of C-70 allows plenty of room to fit a well-filtered power supply. If C-70 is left in place, the SET version has same space challenges as the GCT version. So, depending on your receiver, fitting a power transformer, two chokes, rectifier tube and three filter capacitors onto a small chassis with no depth available is a challenge. I utilize a small one-half inch tall chassis that just fits into the dynamotor area which mounts using the original dynamotor threaded bosses. This gives much more clearance and allows for mounting larger components underneath without interference from C-70 or from the chassis extension on the GTC versions.

Going solid-state certainly will save some room as you now don't need a tube socket or a rectifier tube. Don't worry about cathode stripping with full B+ appearing on cold tubes. That happens with dynamotor operation, too (as soon as the dynamotor is up to speed, full B+ voltage is present.) Solid State rectifiers will result in higher B+ voltage so be sure to compensate for this in your design. Be sure to prevent magnetic coupling between the "iron" by proper orientation of the transformer and chokes. It is possible to build the AC PS in "two levels" - that is, to use a second chassis over the main chassis to gain more area for components (or one angled bracket might suffice.) Most builders don't consider that there is ample space above the main chassis and a secondary chassis can solve a lot of space problems. You can easily build as high as the top of the side support of the chassis which has clearance to fit into the cabinet.

Dual Section Filtered Power Supply - To the right is the schematic for a dual section filtered power supply that I build and installed into a GTC version BC-348-R SN 10662 (Belmont contract.) This receiver had an AC power supply that utilized a Pi-network filter with 10uf filter capacitors. The builder had connected the CT and filter negatives to chassis and connected B- to chassis. This effectively eliminated the filter choke and negative bias from the circuit. Though the hum wasn't excessive, the audio distortion at louder volume was. A redesigned power supply was needed for this otherwise great condition BC-348-R.

Unfortunately, the power transformer HV winding 230-0-230vac and just provided +230vdc B+ using the Pi-network. If I installed a dual section filter, the B+ would probably be around +200vdc or less under load. I had to select a different power transformer, one with 270-0-270vac would be perfect but all I could find in the junk boxes was a 290-0-290vac - close enough!

Since the dual section filter wouldn't drop enough voltage, I had to utilize a series dropping resistor. I calculated the value by assuming the BC-348 B+ current requirement is 60mA. The IR drop was going to be about +60vdc, so the value should be close to 1000 ohms and I²R=P showed that the resistor had to dissipate about 4.0 watts. On the test bench, the power supply B+ was +235vdc when powering the receiver.

I built the power supply onto a small chassis that measured 6.25"W x 3.75"D x 0.625"T. The height of the chassis just allows the left side receiver to cabinet mounting screw to have clearance over it. The bottom edge of the chassis will have to be "notched" for clearance for the dynamotor mounting bosses (see photo lower right.) Concerning the layout, I find that nearly all old power supplies mounted the power transformer in the left corner of the chassis which presents several problems when one is trying to utilize a terminal strip for connecting the AC PS to the receiver. I find that mounting the power transformer on the right side allows more room underneath for components and tie strips. I also use solid-state diodes for the rectifier to provide more space for important filtering components.

After all of the sheet metal work was finished but before any components were mounted, I like to put a finish on the aluminum so it doesn't look so "homebrew." I clean the chassis, then use 400 grit aluminum oxide paper to impart a slight grain to the surface. Then I heat the chassis using a heat gun until it's fairly warm - about 120 degrees. Then I spray the chassis with Easy-Off Oven Cleaner. The active ingredient in EOOC is Sodium Hydroxide which reacts with the aluminum to create a flat finish. Leave the EOOC on the chassis for about five minutes and then rinse it off with cold water. Don't rub the finish or you'll change it's flat look. Use a heat gun to dry the water off. After this treatment the aluminum chassis will look like a professionally made piece. >>>

>>> When mounting the "iron" be sure to avoid any physical orientation that might enhance magnetic coupling between the chokes and the power transformer.

The Dynamotor harness was intact in SN 10662 so I utilized an original terminal strip from a "junk" DM-28 base. This was mounted under the chassis with spacers so it would place the terminal screws at the proper height for the opening in the side panel of the receiver to allow access for connecting and disconnecting the harness.

AC (line - hot) is routed into the SO-143 connector via pins 3 and 4. AC line then goes through the wiring harness utilizing the AVC-MVC switch for "ON/OFF" function (as original) and then to the AC power supply via the dynamotor harness. This routing doesn't add any AC hum to the receiver output. I have tried both a direct AC connection to the power supply and routing through the harness - there is no difference, so no hum is "added" by using the AC connection as shown in the schematic.

photo above: the dual section filtered power supply used in BC-348-R sn 10662. The wire that exits the right side of the chassis is to connect the neutral on the AC line input to pins 7 & 8 on the SO-143 socket. Be sure to disconnect the chassis connection  that was originally present for dynamotor operation.

Be aware that on both the GTC and the Single-ended versions, the dial lights connect to the AVC-MVC switch to provide +28vdc to the lamps but now this point will be at 115vac. You'll have to move the dial lights connection to an adjacent tube socket for the proper 6.3vac. Be sure to verify that +LV and the Blank wires in the harness are connected with +LV being a white with black tracer wire going to the tube heaters and the "blank" position is a plain white wire that goes to the AVC-MVC switch. Sometimes these two wire positions in the harness are reversed since when operating with a dynamotor these two wires are jumped together inside the dynamotor. Also, be sure to check that pins 7 and 8 on the SO-143 are NOT connected to chassis since we are utilizing that connection for AC Neutral. If you want to keep the Remote Standby operational, more than likely you'll have to go back into the BC-348 and find where the two wires for the remote receiver standby line are tied together (they originally were connected to pins 2 and 6 of the SO-143 connector.) Since I utilized the SO-143 connector for AC power input, I also can access the remote standby line for the receiver from there. Check the section in Part One about the PL-103 connector and how to input the wires using push-on connectors the just fit the blade contacts of the SO-143 connector. This makes for a very clean hook-up for the BC-348.

photo above: The underneath of the power supply for sn 10662 showing how compact the circuit can be using SS rectifiers. Also note the original dynamotor terminal strip used for the connections.

Other Problems - Upon power up the BC-348-R operated fine. I measured the B+ at +235vdc which is just where it should be. After the receiver had operated for a while I tuned around the 40M band and noted that I had difficulty tuning in SSB signals. This isn't usually the case with BC-348 receivers. There was a large amount of backlash in the tuning. Looking at the tuning condenser drive gear I noted that there was no "anti-backlash" set into the mesh with the straight-tooth drive gear from the gear train. Luckily, it's easy to set this anti-backlash. First set the tuning condenser for "full mesh." Then loosened the two front mounting screws on the tuning condenser. Then slightly lift the front of the tuning condenser and the condenser drive gear will disengage from the small straight-tooth drive gear. Now while holding the front gear move the back gear to set in about "two teeth" of anti-backlash and hold this tightly with you fingers while re-engaging the anti-backlash gear into the straight-tooth gear. Then re-tighten the condenser mounting screws. This cleared up the tuning problem.

photo left: BC-348-R SN: 10662 Belmont Radio contract from 1942. This shows the final installation of the dual section filter AC power supply. This receiver was in very nice physical condition and the original modification to AC operation didn't do any damage. There were some design issues with the original mod AC PS so I built this new AC power supply as part of the restoration of this receiver. Final operation of this receiver is impressive and the hum level is entirely imperceptible.

Cleaning and Restoration of the Black Wrinkle Finish - To thoroughly clean the wrinkle finish paint I use Glass Plus and a soft brass brush. It sounds harsh but the wrinkle finish can take the abuse. I first remove the knobs and access cover. Then I saturate the front panel with Glass Plus and gently work the solution with a medium soft brass brush - "tooth brush size." I wipe the dirty solution off with paper towels and repeat the process a second time. This time the paper towels should be fairly clean after wiping off the Glass Plus. Any touch-up painting should be done now. I then let the front panel dry thoroughly. Then I apply Armor-All in a very heavy coating and let it set on the front panel for about thirty minutes. After a wipe-down, the panel should look fabulous (for an original.) The same process is applied to the knobs and the access panel. Be careful of any acceptance stamps as this orange ink is somewhat soluble in water or Glass Plus.


photo right: BC-348-R SN:10662 showing the exterior after cleaning and restoration of the original finish

Here's another way to provide good filtering...

Choke Input Filtered Power Supply - The schematic shown to the left is an AC PS that I installed in BC-348-Q SN 20966, the receiver I wanted to use with my ART-13 transmitter. Since the ART-13 operated on an AC PS, I didn't want the receiver to be dynamotor operated. I naturally used a BC-348 that had years before been AC converted and then just restored the receiver to be as original as possible but with just a well-filtered AC PS installed. This will provide me with a BC-348-Q that is very quite to use and still performs almost exactly like the original dynamotor operated receiver. 

Note that choke input is used. This was because the power transformer had an HV winding that provided about +300vdc with a dual section filter. An easy correction was to go with the choke input which gave about +230vdc output with good filtering characteristics. I did utilize the SO-143 connector for my AC input. Especially important to note is that the negative connection on the first filter capacitor is connected to B- and not to chassis. Most choke input power supplies are not designed to develop a negative bias and the transformer CT and the filter capacitor negative are connected to chassis. However, the BC-348 requires a bias voltage for the audio output tube and this is accomplished by floating the CT or B- and connecting to chassis through a choke with 250 ohms of DCR. To achieve the proper charging loop, the first filter capacitor must be connected to B- to provide good filtering. The second filter capacitor should be connected to chassis though. The second filter capacitor is a 10uf because C-70A/B (in the BC-348) adds a 6uf filter capacitor in parallel, so the total capacitance is 16uf. This type of "hook-up" using a choke input dual section filter reduces the hum to the "imperceptible level."

The Dynamotor harness was intact in SN 20966, so I installed a screw terminal strip underneath the power supply chassis to preserve this hook up method just in case a DM-28 turns up in the future. AC input is through the SO-143 connector pin 3/4 which is the +28vdc input (with the AC neutral wired direct as shown in the schematic.) The wire from Pin 3/4 is routed in the harness to the AVC/MVC switch and then continues as a "switched" +28vdc wire to the Dynamotor harness connection pin 3. Routing the AC input via this wire will add no hum to the audio output.

Shown to the left is the restored BC-348-Q SN 20966. It's hard to believe that it's the same receiver shown in the first section of this article, "Finding a Good Candidate for Restoration." As can be seen, the front panel is original with the "M1" stamp and the very faint "AN - Army-Navy" stamp (just below "BAND SWITCH.") This receiver's front panel was given the same treatment described above using Glass Plus worked with a soft brass brush followed by a heavy application of Armor-All.

photo left: Top of SN 20966 showing the installation of the AC power supply with a dual section filter and solid state rectifiers. Care has to be taken to assure that the long screw on the left side (that secures the radio to the cabinet) will have clearance past the chokes when the AC power supply is installed. The screw is not installed in this photo but it does have the necessary clearance.

photo right:
Close-up of the under side of the AC power supply showing how little space is necessary when using SS rectifiers. The terminal strip allows using the original Dynamotor harness for the hook up. Note the C-70 had to be dismounted to reveal the under side of the AC power supply for the photograph.

Repainting the BC-348 or BC-224 - All Versions

First off,...don't attempt this unless your receiver is in really poor cosmetic condition because IT'S A LOT OF WORK! However, some BC-348s are poor on the outside and really nice on the inside, so a repaint is sometimes a necessity.

You're going to need about three or four cans of VHT High-Temp Black Wrinkle Finish Paint. It is carried at most O'Reilly auto parts stores. Be prepared, it's expensive at around nine dollars per can. Use a "spray can handle" as this allows better control over the spray pattern. Also, use high quality paint stripper. Remove all of the knobs, the handles, the small panel, the dial cover and the phone jack "toilet-seat" covers. Unsolder the wires to the dial lamps and to the Antenna terminal. Remove the front panel. Keep all of the screws together because they will also be painted. Drill out the rivets that mount the ID tag to the front panel. You will also have to drill out the rivets that hold the two dial lamp sockets to the panel. You can now strip the paint from the front panel, the handles, the knobs and the smaller access panel.

The front panel, all knobs, the two pieces to the dial cover, the phone jack toilet seat covers and the small access panel are to be painted black wrinkle finish. The handles and the screw heads will be painted black satin finish. Some of the original hardware was actually a dark bronze finish but this was an oxide finish that is difficult to accomplish. It can sometimes be duplicated with ink dyes that combine brown and black to achieve the proper color. Most restorers just paint the screw heads satin black.

First, though, a word or two on how to successfully paint wrinkle finish paint. The original paint used on the BC-348 and all military and commercial gear from the fifties on back was a two-part process that required a base coat of nitrocellulose lacquer that was allowed to dry. Then a catalyst was sprayed onto the lacquer base. The panels were then put into ovens that baked the paint and the wrinkle developed in the oven. That's why most vintage wrinkle paint jobs have the wrinkle on the outside and smooth gloss black paint on the inside. The inside wasn't sprayed with the catalyst.

Today, we use paint that is a one-part process that is heat activated. I do all of my painting outside so the heat comes from incandescent lamps. First, the paint has to be applied with very heavy successive coats separated by just a few minutes. I use three heavy coats applied at different angles for each coat and separate each application by a couple of minutes. Next, to apply heat I use 100 watt light bulbs in clip-on utility lamps with aluminum shades. These are available at Home Depot for less than $10 each. I usually use three lamps suspended over the panel about 10" to 12" above the panel. The three lamps will heat the paint and the panel and the wrinkle process will start in about 10 minutes. I standby with a hand-held heat gun and after about 10 minutes, when the wrinkling starts, I use the heat gun to apply more heat around the corners and places where the lamps don't heat the panel very well. For stubborn areas, the heat gun will force the wrinkle but don't apply too much heat or the paint will "gloss" and the wrinkle won't match. After about another 5 to 10 minutes the wrinkling should be complete and now remove all heat and let the panel cool down for about 30 minutes. When the panel is cool, the paint will be set-up enough to handle. Let the paint cure overnight before mounting any screws or parts to the panel. If you can wait a little longer, like a week, the paint will be much harder and resistant to scratching or other types of damage.

Now comes the tedious part. You'll notice that the silver nomenclature on an original front panel is bare aluminum. Originally, after the panel was painted the paint over the nomenclature was "ground off." Originally, the nomenclature was much higher and when just "ground" down slightly, the bare metal showed through as silver lettering. This time we can't do that since the lettering was already ground down once and now the lettering is just above the paint level. I make a small tool that consists of an industrial razor blade piece about .25" wide that is mounted to a small wooden handle. With this tool I can carefully "shave" the wrinkle finish paint off of the nomenclature but the lettering still isn't bright. >>>

>>>  I also make another tool that is another small wooden handle that has the end cut at an angle that has a flat surface. I use 400 grit aluminum oxide paper held to the angled part of the handle with tape to polish the lettering. This leaves the lettering looking very bright and original. Sometimes there's minor slip-ups but I use a small paint brush to apply Artist's Acrylic Mars Black paint to touch-up scratches or other blemishes I've caused during the process.

To remount the ID tag, you'll have to make "fake rivets." I use 4-40 SS (stainless steel) binder head slotted screws. I chuck them up in a drill press and file the head until you don't see the slot but there is still material left to shape a rivet head. Don't use philips head screws because the slots are too deep. After you have four good looking "fake rivets" mount the tag and secure the "fake rivets" using 4-40 nuts on the back of the panel. There is plenty of clearance for the nuts but don't use overly long screws. Although you don't have to make "fake rivets" to remount the dial lamp sockets be VERY CAREFUL about the back clearance when remounting them with screws and nuts. Mount the binder head screws on the back side of the panel and use the nuts on the dial lamp socket side. You still might have to file the head of the screws to be sure you have clearance. The distance between the back of the front panel and the tuning dial mask is minimal. Without the clearance, you'll scratch the dial mask the first time you change bands. Make sure you have the clearance.

Next, paint the knobs and the other parts that should be black wrinkle. Use a small scraper made out of a jeweler's file to remove the paint from the "arrows" on the knobs. An Ex-acto knife with the proper blade can also be used to remove the paint from the "arrow." Some versions of the knobs appear that the arrow was engraved and some version appear to be stamped into the wrinkle finish paint. The engraved arrows clean out fine but the stamped arrows don't. Some vintage drawings/photos show the knobs without any arrows. If you have the stamped type arrows and are having trouble getting them to look correct, it is acceptable to just leave the knobs black wrinkle and not bother trying to scrape out the paint. Also, be sure to paint the handles and the screw heads black satin.

For the cabinet, I've had pretty good luck just shooting over lightly sanded and very clean original paint with the VHT wrinkle finish and then giving it the heat treatment. You might have to paint one side at a time depending on your heat lamps. I usually do one side at a time because I have better control of the wrinkle process that way. I have stripped the cabinets and wrinkle finished and I suppose they look slightly better but it's very hard to tell whether a repainted cabinet has been stripped or just painted over.

What about the Signal Corps acceptance stamps? - Without a doubt, the repainted BC-348 looks incomplete without the orange Signal Corps acceptance stamps. What I do is first make full scale drawings of what the typical acceptance stamp looks like. This will have the square boarder with "SC" at the top, a random number that was the inspector's identification and then an "A" at the bottom. Also, make another scale drawing of the "M1" stamp that is on 90% of the BC-348s. I then take the scale drawings to a stationary office supply type store that makes rubber stamps. It costs about $15 to $20 per stamp. Usually the square boarder on the "SC" stamp costs a little more but you "gotta have it." Once you get the rubber stamps, now you can apply your own acceptance stamps on any of your repainted Army gear. I use Artist's Acrylic to mix up the proper orange color and use water to thin the paint to a very wet mix. I then soak a cloth pad with the orange paint to create an "ink pad." Be sure to practice on some scrap pieces for a while. Also, be sure to have the stamp "runny looking" and be sure to remember - none of the original stampings were straight. After all, the inspectors were just stamping gear they had tested or accepted - it wasn't anything special to them. The "M1" stamp is usually a lighter, almost yellow-orange color ink and done the same way as the "SC" stamp. In fact, the "M1" stamps are usually even "runnier" looking. The "sloppier" the stampings looks, the more original they look.

Take a look a the photo of BC-348-Q SN 11227 (the last photo in Part One.) This BC-348 has been repainted as described in this section (with the exception that I used Krylon BWF paint instead of VHT.) Also, the Signal Corps acceptance stamps are made with reproduction stamps. Overall, the impression of SN 11227 is that it is an excellent condition, original BC-348. This is the effect we want to achieve in our restorations.


1. Various Military Manuals - These are usually the best sources for wiring diagrams, schematics, parts lists and other information that helps to figure out what is "original" for a particular receiver.

2. CQ Surplus Military Radio Conversion Books - Although I knock CQ quite a bit for their conversion and modification publications, their books specifically on the Military Surplus Radio subjects do provide a lot of information on the equipment and may actually provide some insight into how a specific piece of equipment was modified by a former owner.

3. Internet - The Internet is filled with information on BC-348s. Just do a search and see.

Henry Rogers WA7YBS/WHRM   JAN 2010, DEC 2010, re-edited to add the following: Grid Capped Tubes Version (Part Two,) Repainting, AC PS © JAN 2011

 Added details on AC conversions related to +LV, tube heaters, AVC-MVC switch connections - NOV 2014

BC-224 info and DM-24 info added - August 2015


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Website Navigation Index

-  WHRM History  ~  Nevada Radio History  ~  The KOWL XMTR  ~  Full Length Articles with Photos -


Western Historic Radio Museum Information
 Contact Info, Museum History 1994-2012, Museum Photo Tour, Using Photos and Info from this Website & Radio Value Info

Nevada Radio History - 1906 to 1930
Arthur Raycraft, Nevada's "Father of Wireless," America's First Radio Tour, Early Nevada BC Stations & More

KOWL's Gates BC-250L BC Transmitter
2007 Move from Lake Tahoe - Restoration - PLUS -  2013 Move to Dayton, Nevada & Getting on 160M

Parish House History
1876 to Present
Virginia City, Nevada

Lots of Photos


- Wireless Apparatus, 1920s Radio and Communications Equipment  ~  Full Length Articles with Photos -

M.H. Dodd's 1912 Wireless Station
100th Anniversary  Edition 
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Universal, Intermediate Wave and Short Wave Models History, Restoration and Operation - Lots of Photos

"A Guide to the Synchrophase MU-1"
Comprehensive Manufacturing History, Restoration, Neutralizing, Performance Information - Lots of Photos


 SE-1420, IP-501 & IP-501A
"The Classic Shipboard Wireless Receivers"
Comprehensive History, Restoration and Operation Info - Tuning in NDBs with IP-501-A

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Fallon NV "Master - M" Loran Station Tour



- Vintage Communications & Amateur Radio Equipment  ~  Full Length Articles with Photos -

National Co. - HRO Receiver
"The Cream of the Crop" 
Comprehensive History, Serial Numbers, Restoration, Lots of Photos & More

National Co. - NC-100 Series
"Moving Coil"  Receivers 
Comprehensive History, Serial Numbers, Restoration & More - Includes Civilian Versions, Military Versions & Airport Versions

Hallicrafters SX-28
"A Pre-war Masterpiece"

Comprehensive History, Serial Number Analysis, Restoration Details & More

Patterson Radio Company
   PR-10 Receiver & Pre-selector              

Comprehensive History, Los Angeles Radio Mfgs History, Circuit Details, Serial Numbers, Restoration Details & More

 RCA's Amazing AR-88 Receivers
Comprehensive History, Restoration Info, How to do IF Sweep Alignments, Serial Numbers & More

RCA's Legendary AR-60 Receiver
Comprehensive History, Serial Number Analysis, Restoration Details & More - including the AR-60 connection to Amelia Earhart's Disappearance

Hammarlund Mfg.Co.,Inc
The Incredible Pre-War 'Super-Pro'
omprehensive History, Serial Number Analysis, Restoration Details. Includes info on the Hammarlund Comet Pro

Hallicrafters DD-1 "Skyrider Diversity"
Comprehensive History, Serial Numbers & Restoration Details

Hallicrafters' "Super-Pro" R-274 Receiver
Comparison of the SP-600 to the R-274(SX-73) in detail, best features of each. VOTE for your favorite Super Pro


-  Rebuilding Communications Equipment  ~  Full Length Articles with Photos -

Rebuilding the R-390A Receiver
Detailed Restoration Information for each module with Lots of Photos

Rebuilding the ART-13 Transmitter
Detailed Restoration info - includes details on building AC power supplies (with schematics) Lots of Photos

Rebuilding the Hammarlund SP-600
Detailed Restoration Information with Lots of Photos

NEW!       T-368 Military Transmitter                    
Detailed Information on Reworking, Testing and
Operation with Lots of Photos

Rebuilding and Operating the AN/GRC-19
T-195 XMTR & R-392 RCVR

 Detailed Information with Lots of Photos

Successfully Operating the BC-375 on the Ham Bands Today
Detailed Information on Power Set-ups that Work, Dynamic Neutralization, BC-191 Info & More

Rebuilding the Collins 51J Series Receivers
Detailed Restoration Information with Lots of Photos - Includes R-388 Receiver

Rebuilding the BC-348 Receiver
Detailed Information on all BC-348 Types, Dynamotor Retrofit Information, AC Power Supply Enhancement - Lots of Photos

Building an Authentic 1937 Ham Station
Utah Radio Products - UAT-1 Transmitter


- WHRM Radio Photo Galleries with Text -

Entertainment Radios from 1922 to 1950

Roaring 20s Radios
1922 to 1929

Vintage Table Radios
1930 to 1950

Floor Model Radios (Consoles)
1929 to 1939

Only Zenith Radios
1930 to 1940

Communications Equipment from 1909 to 1959 - Commercial, Military & Amateur

 Early Ham & Commercial Wireless Gear
1909 to 1927

Classic Pre-WWII Ham Gear
1928 to 1941

WWII Communications Equipment
 U.S. Navy & U.S. Army Signal Corps  1941 to 1945

Commercial & Military
Communications Gear
1932-1941 & 1946-1967

Post-WWII Ham Gear
1946 to 1959

Vintage Broadcast Equipment, RTTY, Telegraph Keys & Vintage Test Equipment

Vintage Microphones
 & Vintage Broadcast Gear
1930 to 1950s

Radio Teletype - RTTY - with Real Machines
includes TTY Machines, Military TUs and Amateur TUs

Telegraph Keys - 1900 to 1955
"From Straight Keys to Bugs"
Hand Keys and Semi-Automatic Telegraph Keys

Vintage Test Equipment
1900 to 1970

Includes Tube Testers, Freq Meters, Wobulators and More


Radio Boulevard
Western Historic Radio Museum

 Vintage Radio Communication Equipment Rebuilding & Restoration Articles,

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1909 - 1959



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